Paper Bag Properties
Table of Contents
Paper bags have amazing advantages in terms of environmental friendliness. They work to create a more sustainable world because …
- they are produced from a renewable raw material
- they are reusable
- they are recyclable
- they are biodegradable
- their raw material is sourced from sustainably managed forests
- they store carbon dioxide (CO2)
The environmental symbols created by The Paper Bag help companies demonstrate their environmental responsibility, promote the sustainability credentials of paper bags and share them with consumers.
Paper bags are produced from a renewable raw material
The raw material used in papermaking is long cellulose fibres, which are extracted from tree thinnings and from process waste from the sawn timber industry. These fibres are a bio-based, renewable and ever-growing natural resource.
Paper bags are reusable
Thanks to the long, strong virgin cellulose fibres that can be used in paper carrier bags, they can have a high mechanical strength. This is a prerequisite for having a durable paper bag that can be reused several times. In a four-part video series by “The Paper Bag” the reusability of paper bags put to the acid test. The same paper bag withstands four different uses with heavy loads of around eight kilos or more, as well as challenging shopping items with moisture content and sharp edges and bumpy everyday transport situations. After four trips, it is even good for another use. Reusing a bag rather than purchasing a new one has a positive impact on the environment. It conserves natural resources that would otherwise be utilised in the production of a new bag. Reusing also extends the carbon sequestration duration for the CO2 stored in the paper utilised to manufacture the bag.
Paper bags are recyclable
The long and strong fibres within the paper bags also make them a good source for recycling. Through local waste streams, paper-based packaging can be recycled more than 25 times1 according to a new study. Especially in Europe, the world leader in recycling paper with a recycling rate of 71.4% in 20212, end consumers can help to keep the recycling loop going by deposing their used bags in designated recycling bins for paper and cardboard. In doing so, they contribute to 1.8 tonnes of paper being recycled every second! The fibres can then be used to produce new fibre-based products and replace the raw material, through which natural resources can be saved.
Paper bags are biodegradable
Due to their natural characteristics, specially designed paper waste bags can be used for collection of biowaste and compost in many municipalities around Europe. They will then degrade together with the biowaste in composting and biogas installations producing valuable fertilizers and energy. As a product made from natural resources, paper bags are biodegradable. Even if they mistakenly end up in nature, they do not harm the environment.
Paper bags are sourced from sustainably managed forests
The cellulose fibres that are used as raw material to produce paper bags in Europe are mostly sourced from sustainably managed European forests. They are extracted from tree thinning and from process waste from the sawn timber industry. Every year, more wood grows than is harvested in European forests. Between 1990 and 2020, the area of forests in Europe has increased by 10%3, amounting to 227 million hectares. That means, more than a third of Europe is covered by forests. Sustainable forest management maintains biodiversity and ecosystems and provides a habitat for wildlife, recreational areas and jobs. Forests have an enormous potential to mitigate climate change when they grow.
Paper bags store CO2
Trees absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and emit oxygen when they grow. The average annual sequestration of carbon in the European region reached 155 million tonnes between 2010 and 2020. The sequestration corresponds to around 10% of gross greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-28.4 Furthermore, as a wood product, paper continues to store carbon throughout its lifetime. This carbon sequestration time is extended when we reuse and afterwards recycle the paper. Thus, paper bags help to mitigate climate change.
The kraft paper and paper carrier bag industry is working hard to further improve the ecological footprint of its products and the related industries.
- In the past years, the strength and quality of the kraft paper and paper carrier bags were improved: this can increase the load capacity of high-quality paper carrier bags as well as their reusability.
- The production of kraft paper is to a large extent energy self-sufficient thanks to its unique production process.
- Modern paper production sites bring heat and electricity to neighbouring communities: the steam generated during the pulp and paper production drives not only the turbines on-site but also feeds electricity into the grid. Additionally, the heated water can be used as district heat, benefiting neighbouring communities.
- The average water intake that is needed in the pulp and paper production has been reduced by more than 40% since the 1990s. The water is used several times in the mill and is purified and controlled before it is returned back to the environment almost completely (90% in 2020)5 and in good quality.
Further information on how paper bags contribute to a more environmentally friendly world can be found in The Green Book.